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Giulio Fanti, professor of mechanical and thermal measurement at the University of Padua, led a team of researchers through three tests of Shroud fibers that were in the piece of cloth used in the 1988 radiocarbon tests.
The tests used infrared light and Raman spectroscopy as well as a way of analyzing mechanical parameters related to voltage.
It couldn't have been painted, as the fibers on the cloth are not stuck together by any sort of paint.
At a news conference today, the shroud's custodian, Anastasio Cardinal Ballestrero, revealed that radiocarbon tests conducted independently by three laboratories this year had concluded that the shroud cloth was created between 12.
Unconfirmed reports that the tests had disproved the authenticity of the shroud had appeared in the press in recent weeks, but today's announcement was the first official disclosure of the results and of the church's response.
In other words, what we have before us is an image formed through a three-dimensional process, which cannot yet be explained and simulated in practice in order to obtain replica images of the Shroud." In addition, soil and pollen specific to Jerusalem have been detected on the cloth of the Shroud, even though it hasn't been to that area in its known history.
There's also evidence in art and devotional history of Christians being aware of the Shroud prior to the radiocarbon dating of the 13th century, as documented in this BBC documentary.